Tuesday, May 13, 2008


In the ancient period so many students came to teacher that he could not fulfill his responsibilities towards them. Hence he used to seek the assistance of meritorious students of higher classes called “pattacharya” who assisted their teacher in teaching. If the teacher sometimes went out side, he used to entrust the whole work of teaching and school to such students.

As in the monitorial system, in this system meritorious students of the same class and some students of the higher classes assisted the teacher in the performance of teaching and other allied works, after having been thus trained these students used to become efficient teachers and school organizers.

The chief aim of the Muslim rulers in India was to propagate their religion. It is very difficult for them to have any idea of teacher education.


In this period, the educational Boards of Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta for the first time felt the need of teacher education. They established a few training centers where the teachers of primary schools were imparted training. The native education society of Bombay trained 25 teachers and sent them to different parts of the province. So that the standard of teaching in the primary schools might be raised. In 1812, Calcutta school society was established at Calcutta, which made provision for the training of the teachers on the basis of monitorial system. East India Company started giving Rs. 500 monthly aid since 1825. Training schools for the training of teachers was founded at madras in 1825, in order to encourage the work of the society, in accordance with the suggestions of Munro, the then governor of Madras.

Wood’s dispatch of 1854 mentioned “we desire to see the establishment, with as little delay as possible, of training schools and classes for masters in each presidency in India”.

3. FROM 1859 TO 1882
Lord Stanley mentioned in his dispatch that a special attention should be devoted to the training of the teachers. After the transfer of the power it was not possible for the British administrators posted in India to ignore or disregard the orders of the secretary for state of India. Hence they worked with enthusiasm for the establishment of training schools in India. As a result of their efforts many training schools were established in each province by the year 1882. in 1882 there were 7 training schools for men and 2 for women. The number of students studying in these schools was 553. In Madhya Pradesh technical schools were 43 for men and 1 for women. The number of students studying in these schools was 118.
Normal school system was started in Bengal in 1862. According to this system the teachers of the native schools or their relations were sent to Normal Schools. In 1874 Campbell, the Governor of the Province, prepared a new scheme for the training of the teachers. Consequently, 46 normal schools were established at the cost of Rs.164000/-.
In Madres, there were 32 training schools with 927 students. Provision of the training of the teachers of primary schools was made in other provinces also. In 1802, there 106 normal schools in the whole of India and 3886 men and women were being trained in those schools with an annual expenditure of Rs.4 lacs.

4. Regular System of Teacher Education
In India regular system of teacher education was started in accordance with the recommendation of the Indian Education Commission, 1882. Hence by the end of 19th century there were Training Colleges at Madras, Lahore, Allahabad, Kursang, Rajmudri and Jabalpur and 50 Training Schools in the whole country.

5. Government Resolution of Education Policy, 1904
Lord Curzon devoted sufficient attention towards education and training of the teachers. The Government Resolution of Educational Policy of 1904, made the following recommendations:
1. Provision should be made for higher training of able and experienced teachers for the Indian educational Service.
2. The importance of the equipment of the Training colleges is almost equal as that of General colleges.
3. The training period for the graduates should be only one year. Thereafter they should be granted degree by the University. The knowledge of teaching methods and practical training should also be included in the curriculum. The training period for the non-graduates should be two years.
4. Theoretical training and practical training should be mutually connected with each other. There should be a practicing school connected with each Training College.
5. Training colleges should be connected with ordinary schools so that the teachers may apply the methods learned in the training colleges.

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